Larger in neonatal males [ 31 ]. Adult males have a larger medial nucleus than adult females [ 38 ]. Table 2 presents some of the neurochemical sex differences that have been identified. There is, however, a lack of data on sex-specific pathophysiology of this disorder. Instead, the SDN-POA may be related to inhibition of female sexual behaviors [ 16 ; 17 ], which might not have been an obvious hypothesis given what was known about the POA previously.
Specifically, women presented higher levels of inflammatory, neurotrophic, and serotonergic markers and a stronger correlation between levels of some inflammatory and neurotrophic factors and the severity of symptoms. A genetic component has been demonstrated in mice [ 50 ]. Activational effects of circulating androgens accounts for the larger region in males [ 40 ]. Although these neuroanatomical differences are intriguing, most are limited because the practical or functional significance of these findings are unknown. Substantia nigra pars compacta Made up almost entirely of dopaminergic neurons. Larger in neonatal males [ 31 ]. Potential human equivalent is INAH-3 [ 18 ]. Corpus Callosum Conducts information between the two halves of the cortex [ 30 ]. Amygdala Strongly associated with emotion, decision-making and Pavlovian conditioning [ 37 ]. Neurokin-B neurons innervate capillary vessels in the ventromedial ARC in post-pubertal males only [ 6 ]. A highly relevant case study highlighted in their review concerns the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area SDN-POA. SDN-POA exist, and the interpretation of the data is often more complicated than this summary implies. Adult males have a larger medial nucleus than adult females [ 38 ]. Perinatal aromatized androgen decreases neuronal apoptotic rates in males [ 20 ]. Table 2 presents some of the neurochemical sex differences that have been identified. Instead, the SDN-POA may be related to inhibition of female sexual behaviors [ 16 ; 17 ], which might not have been an obvious hypothesis given what was known about the POA previously. Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus AVPV Involved in regulating the luteinizing hormone surge in females [ 20 ] and male copulatory behavior [ 21 ]. The principal nucleus BNSTp is larger in volume in males [ 28 ]. Future research should include homogeneous samples; make comparisons based on sex, control sex hormone fluctuations and pharmacological treatment; and use consistent criteria for evaluating psychobiological changes in MDD. Findings suggest different biological patterns in those with MDD depending on sex. Lesions of the SDN alone slow acquisition of this behavior. The preoptic area POA has been implicated in the regulation of male copulatory behavior [ 14 ], but the link if any between the sex difference in SDN-POA size and behavior remains elusive. Conflicting evidence concerning the examples reported here particularly in the SDN-POA exist, and the interpretation of the data is often more complicated than this summary implies. Cerebral cortex Connected to a wide range of processes from memory [ 41 ] to language [ 42 ] to emotional processing [ 43 ]. There is, however, a lack of data on sex-specific pathophysiology of this disorder. Females have less synapses in the ventrolateral VMN compared to males [ 8 ]. This significantly limits the conclusions that can be drawn from any observations made in humans.
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