Their main arguments are that certain sexual practices such as prostitution and pornography exploit women and have historically benefited men rather than women and that the indiscriminate promotion of all kinds of sexual practices merely contributes to female oppression. Furthermore, many argue that playing with power such as rape scenes through BDSM is a way of challenging and subverting that power, rather than reifying it. She argued that this showed that the laws were intended to protect ideas of chastity rather than issues of consent. It is often mentioned that in BDSM, roles aren't fixed to gender , but personal preferences. Pornography was not a major issue during this era; radical feminists were generally opposed to pornography, but the issue was not treated as especially important until the mids. One tendency has criticized the restrictions on women's sexual behavior and denounced the high costs imposed on women for being sexually active. This tradition of feminist sexual thought has called for a sexual liberation that would work for women as well as for men. Sadomasochism BDSM has been criticized by anti porn feminists for eroticizing power and violence and for reinforcing misogyny Rubin, While not opposed to sex-positive feminism per se, nor wishing specifically to prescribe certain forms of sexual behavior, she sees a popularized form of sex-positivity as constituting a kind of "raunch culture" in which women internalize objectifying male views of themselves and other women.
One of the earliest feminist arguments against this anti-pornography trend amongst feminists was Ellen Willis 's essay "Feminism, Moralism, and Pornography" first published in October in the Village Voice. Some feminist groups began to concern themselves with prescribing what proper feminist sexuality should look like. Feminist views on pornography and Opposition to pornography The issue of pornography was perhaps the first issue to unite sex-positive feminists, though current sex-positive views on the subject are wide-ranging and complex. The social background in which sex-positive feminism operates must also be understood: Sheila Jeffreys argues that the " sexual revolution " on men's terms has contributed less to women's freedom than to their continued oppression. She argued that this showed that the laws were intended to protect ideas of chastity rather than issues of consent. She also argues that the blame for women's oppression should be put on targets who deserve it: Other feminists identify women's sexual liberation as the real motive behind the women's movement. Gender identity[ edit ] Some feminists, such as Germaine Greer , have criticized transgender women male-to-female as men attempting to appropriate female identity while retaining male privilege , and transgender men female-to-male as women who reject solidarity with their gender. Christian societies are often influenced by what is understood as 'traditional' sexual morality: One of the main exponents of this point of view is Janice Raymond. Some feminists also criticize this belief, arguing instead that gender roles are societal constructs, and are not related to any natural factor. They argue that prostitution is not necessarily bad for women if prostitutes are treated with respect and if the professions within sex work are de-stigmatized. Sexual liberation, from this perspective, looks like a male rationalization for forcing sex on women. Soon after, a coalition of anti-porn feminists and right-wing groups succeeded in passing a similar ordinance in Indianapolis. They argue that women who choose to engage in BDSM are making a choice that is ultimately bad for women. This tradition resonates with conservative, anti-sexual discourse. Key ideas[ edit ] Susie Bright , a writer and activist, one of the first persons to be referred to as a sex-positive feminist. Note 2 Bell hooks argues that one problem with sexual liberation movements is that they focus on the right to engage in sexual activity, but often ignore the right to refuse to engage in sexual acts. China scholar Elaine Jeffreys observes that the 'anti-prostitute' position gained increased critical purchase during the establishment of the international movement for prostitutes in , demanding recognition of prostitutes' rights as an emancipation and labor issue rather than of criminality, immorality or disease. Sex-positive feminism is connected with the sex-positive movement. One tendency has criticized the restrictions on women's sexual behavior and denounced the high costs imposed on women for being sexually active. They embrace sexual minority groups, endorsing the value of coalition -building with marginalized groups. Patrick Califia has written extensively about issues surrounding feminism and transgender issues, especially in Sex Changes: Dodson argues that the play promotes a negative view of sexuality, emphasizing sexual violence against women rather than the redemptive value of female sexuality.
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