Serum lipoprotein cholesterols were analyzed using a combination of heparin-calcium precipitation and agar-agarose gel electrophoresis procedures The average values of childhood measurements at multiple time points were used, standardized to age, race, and sex-specific z-scores. This panel design, based on repeated cross-sectional examinations conducted approximately every 3 to 4 years, resulted in multiple observations during childhood and young adulthood. In the Bogalusa Heart Study, we have shown that childhood predictors of adult subclinical atherosclerosis vary according to race and sex After at least 5 minutes of bed rest, 3 waveforms of brachial and tibial arteries were recorded. Results Mean values of risk factor measurements in the study cohort during childhood and adulthood are displayed in Table 1 , by race and sex. In the — survey of young adults, brachial to ankle pulse wave velocity baPWV , measured by applanation tonometry, was obtained on participants aged 24 to 44 years, mean age Table 1 Risk factor variables in childhood and in adulthood in the study cohort by race and sex: Participants were instructed to fast for 12 hours before screening, with compliance ascertained by interview on the morning of the examination.
Methods Six hundred and eighty adults aged 24—43 had been followed for an average of Electrocardiogram monitoring was performed with electrodes placed on both wrists. Brachial to ankle pulse wave velocity baPWV measured by an automatic oscillometric technique was used as the outcome variable for arterial stiffness during adulthood. Finally baPWV was calculated with the equation: In the — survey of young adults, brachial to ankle pulse wave velocity baPWV , measured by applanation tonometry, was obtained on participants aged 24 to 44 years, mean age Blacks and females had faster pulse rates than whites and males, and blacks and males had higher levels of baPWV than whites and females, respectively, in adulthood. In the Bogalusa Heart Study, we have shown that childhood predictors of adult subclinical atherosclerosis vary according to race and sex Of these participants, had all risk factor variables considered in this study measured at least once in childhood on average 4 times. Since then, it has been measured enzymatically as part of a multichemistry SMA20 profile. The average value of measurements on both left and right sides was used for data analysis. Abstract Background and aim Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood are predictive of adulthood arterial stiffness. To examine the reproducibility of baPWV, 37 randomly selected subjects were reexamined 2—3 hours later, after their first examination. With some exceptions in particular race, sex, and age groups, blacks vs whites had higher levels of systolic blood pressure and HDL cholesterol and lower triglycerides; males vs females had higher levels of systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and lower levels of HDL cholesterol; blacks had a higher BMI than whites. The Bogalusa Heart Study Risk factor variable. The Bogalusa Heart Study, a black-white, community-based investigation of the natural history of CV disease beginning in childhood 18 , provides a unique opportunity to examine black-white and sex differences in the association of traditional CV risk factors in children with arterial stiffness in young adults. The average values of childhood measurements at multiple time points were used, standardized to age, race, and sex-specific z-scores. Statistical methods Values of risk factor variables were first standardized to survey-, age-, race-, and sex-specific z-scores, and the average values of the z-scores of multiple measurements during childhood were used as childhood values. This standardization monitored the accuracy of measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol concentrations. Table 1 Risk factor variables in childhood and in adulthood in the study cohort by race and sex: Race black—white , sex, childhood CV risk factors, adult arterial stiffness Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that childhood cardiovascular CV risk factors are predictive of subclinical CV structural and functional changes in adults 1 — 5. To examine interactions between childhood risk factor variables and race or sex on baPWV, interaction terms between childhood risk factor variables and race or sex were included in a single model, with the main effects included in the model as well. The pressure waveforms obtained at the two different sites were simultaneously recorded to determine the time interval between the initial rise in the brachial and tibial pressure waveforms Ta. Height and weight were measured twice to within 0. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were recorded as the first, fourth in children , and fifth in adults Korotkoff phases using mercury sphygmomanometers. It is well established that there are substantial racial and sex differences in CV risk factors and related CV risk that occurs from childhood to adulthood 11 — All data analyses were performed using SAS version 9.
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