Leptin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue. Male musculature and body shape By the end of puberty, adult men have heavier bones and nearly twice as much skeletal muscle. Arm, leg, chest , abdominal , and back hair become heavier more gradually. Before puberty, the larynx of boys and girls is about equally small. The onset of this neurohormonal process may precede the first visible body changes by 1—2 years. The main target cells of LH are the Leydig cells of testes and the theca cells of the ovaries. The mucosal surface of the vagina also changes in response to increasing levels of estrogen , becoming thicker and duller pink in color in contrast to the brighter red of the prepubertal vaginal mucosa. Effects of early and late puberty onset Several studies about puberty have examined the effects of an early or a late onset of puberty in males and females. Most of these reported social effects are small and our understanding is incomplete.
Adrenal androgens are steroids produced by the zona reticulosa of the adrenal cortex in both sexes. Major hormones Neurokinin B a tachykinin peptide and kisspeptin a neuropeptide , both present in the same hypothalamic neurons , are critical parts of the control system that switches on the release of GnRH at the start of puberty. Estradiol together with other ovarian steroids also cause the darker coloration of the areola. Components of the endocrine reproductive system The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is the driver of the reproductive system. The rise in GnRH might also be caused by genetics. Statistical associations are not necessarily causal, and a variety of covariables and alternative explanations can be imagined. IGF1 insulin-like growth factor 1 rises substantially during puberty in response to rising levels of growth hormone and may be the principal mediator of the pubertal growth spurt. The membrane that bonds the inner surface of the foreskin with the glans disintegrates and releases the foreskin to separate from the glans. LH secretion changes more dramatically with the initiation of puberty than FSH, as LH levels increase about fold with the onset of puberty, compared with the 2. However, they have based their conclusions on a comparison of data from with data from The male "growth spurt" also begins later, accelerates more slowly, and lasts longer before the epiphyses fuse. Another limitation of the social research is that nearly all of it has concerned girls, partly because female puberty requires greater physiologic resources and partly because it involves a unique event menarche that makes survey research into female puberty much simpler than male. Voice change Under the influence of androgens, the voice box, or larynx , grows in both sexes. More detail is provided in the menarche article. The brain's hypothalamus begins to release pulses of GnRH. Another androgen effect is increased secretion of oil sebum from the skin. This growth is far more prominent in boys, causing the male voice to drop and deepen, sometimes abruptly but rarely "overnight," about one octave , because the longer and thicker vocal folds have a lower fundamental frequency. Whitish secretions physiologic leukorrhea are a normal effect of estrogen as well. Leptin has receptors in the hypothalamus which synthesizes GnRH. The specific genes affecting timing are not yet known. Rarely, menarche can occur before other signs of puberty in a few girls. The period of hormonal activity until several months after birth, followed by suppression of activity, may correspond to the period of infant sexuality, followed by a latency stage , which Sigmund Freud described. This can be disguised or hidden by wearing close-fitting underwear, a long shirt and baggier clothes. Rising levels of adrenal androgens termed adrenarche can usually be detected between 6 and 11 years of age, even before the increasing gonadotropin pulses of hypothalamic puberty. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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