In the s there was tension between the eastern and western halves of Pakistan. Starting in the s, large numbers of Punjabis migrated to the Middle East , Britain , Spain , Canada and the United States for economic opportunities, forming the large Punjabi diaspora. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and eventually evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilization. In the s, the new city of Islamabad was founded north of Rawalpindi. It was merged into a single province West Pakistan. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the city of Mecca , their capital was Damascus. Indian Sikh pilgrims visit holy sites such as Nankana Sahib.
It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams , the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Taxila was a great centre of learning and intellectual discussion during the Maurya Empire. In order to address the situation, a new formula resulted in the abolition of the province status for Punjab in The northwestern part of the South Asia, including Punjab, was repeatedly invaded or conquered by various foreign empires, such as those of Tamerlane , Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan. Muslim soldiers, traders, architects, theologians and Sufis came from the rest of the Muslim world to the Islamic Sultanate in South Asia. In the s there was tension between the eastern and western halves of Pakistan. Business and cultural ties between the United States and Punjab are growing. Harappa was the center of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in central Punjab. The Umayyad Caliphate was the second Islamic caliphate established after the death of Prophet Muhammad. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the city of Mecca , their capital was Damascus. Agriculture continues to be the largest sector of Punjab's economy. Having taken a northeasterly direction, he marched against the Aspii mountaineers , who offered vigorous resistance, but were subdued. Unlike neighbouring India, there was no large-scale redistribution of agricultural land. Punjab witnessed major battles between the armies of India and Pakistan in the wars of and This led to massive rioting as both sides committed atrocities against fleeing refugees. The peace process between India and Pakistan, which began in earnest in , has helped pacify the situation. Alexander invested many troops, eventually killing seventeen thousand Cathians in this battle, and the city of Sagala present-day Sialkot was razed to the ground. The arrival of the Indo-Aryans led to the flourishing of the Vedic civilization along the length of the Indus River. The Harappan architecture and Harrapan Civilization was one of the most developed in the old Bronze Age. However, Alexander had to encounter and reduce the tribes on the border of Punjab before entering the luxuriant plains. Some areas in Punjab, including Lahore, Rawalpindi , Multan , and Gujrat , had a large Sikh and Hindu population, and many of the residents were attacked or killed. Western Punjab was assimilated into the new country of Pakistan , while East Punjab became a part of modern-day India. As a result, most rural areas are dominated by a small set of feudalistic land-owning families. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan's Punjab province ; the mostly Sikh and Hindu eastern part became India's East Punjab state. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and eventually evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilization. In , after East Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh , Punjab again became a province.
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